Spin up WebAssembly on DigitalOcean in Minutes

When creating microservices, sometimes it’s nice to quickly get going with a publicly available server. In this article, we build a Spin app on a DigitalOcean server.

DigitalOcean is known for making it easy for developers to create and manage cloud computing. And we at Fermyon love them for it. We’ll start by creating a DigitalOcean Droplet. We’ll use VS Code to attach our development environment directly to the Droplet. Then we’ll install Spin and Rust. In a few more minutes, we’ll have a simple app coded up, compiled, and running on a public IP address.

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We're talking about Nomad, WebAssembly, and Next Wave Microservices @ HashiConf EU

HashiConf EU is both virtual and in-person in Amsterdam this June 20-22. Matt Butcher is presenting (virtually) on “WebAssembly and Nomad for Next Wave Microservices.” Finicky Whiskers will make its return, as we look at how the world’s most adorable manual load generator runs atop Nomad and Spin. See how we use service discovery, secret storage, and Nomad task drivers to run a huge number of next-wave microservices on a surprisingly small Nomad cluster.

Here is the description of Matt’s talk.

First came virtual machines. Then containers. Now WebAssembly is poised to be the next wave of cloud computing. With blazing fast speeds, tiny binaries, and security by default, Wasm is the foundation for a new generation of microservices. When we began building our open source Wasm platform, we chose to build it on Nomad, Consul, and Vault. Attendees will leave understanding WebAssembly, its potential on the cloud, and why Nomad is the ideal orchestrator for Wasm.

As always, we’re excited about HashiCorp’s amazing set of tools, and we’re proud to participate in HashiConf EU.

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Why You Shouldn't Repatriate Your Servers - Addressing Cloud Overconsumption

A year ago, Andreessen Horowitz (a16z) published one of my favorite articles on cloud. The Cost of Cloud: A Trillion Dollar Paradox tells a tale all too familiar for those of us who have lived the cloud revolution: Public cloud starts cheap, becomes merely “cost-effective,” then is tolerated because of its utility. And then one day you realize that cloud hosting is consuming massive amounts of your budget.

A16z has absolutely nailed their diagnosis: cloud cost can spiral out of control. But their primary proposal seems to be that the solution is to return from the cloud to the data centers of yore. We think that there is a better way, and we’re eagerly building part of the solution.

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Meet the Fermyon Team @ Open Source Summit 2022

Join us in Austin, TX this June 21-24 at Open Source Summit where we will be hanging out, talking about WebAssembly, and giving away some awesome schwag. The Fermyon team will have a booth where you can come and discuss the next generation of microservices and get stickers and other goodies.

Open Source Summit 2022

On top of this, you won’t want to miss Matt Butcher’s keynote session on “WebAssembly and the Next Generation of Microservices.” He will be talking about how Fermyon is leveraging cloud-side WebAssembly to address common developer problems. Here’s his abstract:

Microservices are serving us well in many ways. But in some ways, we can do better. Having learned a bit from Functions as a Service, containers, and now WebAssembly, we can rethink some of our assumptions and perhaps devise a better way for creating microservices.

In this session, Matt introduces cloud-side WebAssembly and shows how it addresses common developer problems. From maintainability of code to security to operational simplicity, WebAssembly is the technology that lets us build better microservices faster.

We’re looking forward to seeing you there!

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Announcing a new Spin release

A little over a month ago, we introduced Spin, a foundational piece of the Fermyon platform built on top of the WebAssembly component model for building web applications, microservices, and event-driven, function-based applications. Today, we are really excited to announce a new release of Spin, v0.2.0, which is packed with new features and improvements to the developer experience!

Since we first released Spin, it has been executing hundreds of thousands of WebAssembly instances in production powering fermyon.com and spin.fermyon.dev, made its first appearance in a conference talk demo (you have to try out Finicky Whiskers, the world’s most adorable manual load generator), and had its first external contributions from the community and public developer meeting. At Fermyon, we are really excited about the momentum of the Spin project and about all the ways we can make it easier for developers to build and deploy WebAssembly components at scale!

Let’s highlight some of the new features of Spin v0.2, starting with the new experience for creating an application.

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Accessing external APIs from Spin applications

Whether you are building a Discord bot with Spin or being a little more experimental, chances are you’ll probably want to have the ability to make outbound HTTP calls if you’re a Spin user.

Spin provides an extension that makes it simple to work with REST services. In this blog post, we’re going to show you how to make use of outbound HTTP calls to access external APIs using the wasi-experimental-http crate in Rust.

Similar examples also exists in the SDKs for Go and AssemblyScript.

Adding networking to WASI

At it’s core, WebAssembly relies on the idea of an isolated and sandboxed environment that is separate from the host environment. WASI expands upon this by providing a modular interface that enables a set of systems APIs specific to WebAssembly. There is currently a proposed networking API that is under consideration, but until it is agreed upon and implemented, WASI does not have the ability to open outbound network sockets.

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Scheduling WebAssembly-backed services with Spin and Nomad

The growing trend of server-side WebAssembly has a very bright future in the cloud-native ecosystem. Because of WebAssembly’s low footprint binary, organizations have the ability to deploy high-performance applications in a secure sandboxed environment with startup speeds that are 1000x that of traditional containers.

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Come learn how we use Bartholomew @ WasmDay EU 2022

This May 16th, Matt Butcher and Radu Matei will be speaking at WasmDay EU in Valencia, Spain about “Why (and How) We Wrote a WebAssembly CMS”. In this exciting presentation, you’ll be introduced to the methodology behind Bartholomew, our blazing-fast CMS that compiles to WebAssembly.

Throughout the talk, Matt and Radu will discuss how the power of Wasm enables this cloud-side CMS to enable better performance, SEO optimization, and a low resource footprint while being easier to use than modern static site generators.

Here’s the abstract:

Our website, Fermyon.com, is powered by a cloud-side CMS written specifically to be compiled to WebAssembly. Bartholomew (our CMS) is blazingly fast, SEO-optimized, and consumes minimal system resources. It is easier to use than the popular static site generators and has all the benefits of a dynamic CMS. Best of all, it shows the promise of WebAssembly on the cloud side. In this talk, we share the design of this CMS and talk about how it’s running. We’ll talk about the limitations we encountered (and overcame) with WebAssembly, as well as our early performance and optimization work. Along the way, we will talk about why we chose HashiCorp Nomad as our clustering technology. And we’ll introduce Wagi (WebAssembly Gateway Interface), the HTTP engine that powers our CMS.

Outside of the presentation, Matt and Radu will also be around for the rest of KubeCon at the Krustlet and Helm booths in the Open Source Pavilion.

More details can be found here.

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Matt Butcher @ DockerCon May 10, 2022

This May 10th, Matt Butcher will be virtually presenting “Containers and WebAssembly” at DockerCon 2022. In this interactive session, Matt will discuss how WebAssembly and containers have the potential to act in unison despite the common rhetoric that Wasm is trying to be a replacement for containers.

Here’s the abstract:

WebAssembly (Wasm) has generated buzz as the next cloud technology. But as frequently happens, rhetoric overstepped facts. WebAssembly is not the “Docker replacement.” We focus on Wasm’s promise, and where it fits into the cloud. We conclude with examples of Docker and Wasm complementing each other.

The presentation will be held at 11am PDT. Here is the DockerCon 2022 schedule.

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Running .NET in WebAssembly

It’s common to describe C# as an object-oriented language for big Microsoft shops. But nowadays that sells it short. C# has increasingly moved away from its conservative roots, thoughtfully bringing on features from functional and research languages, and gradually shedding ceremony to compete with leaner languages. Today, C# is estimated to be the fifth most popular programming language in the world.

C# targets the .NET runtime, a language-neutral execution environment that runs a low-level bytecode. Other .NET languages include F#, a functional-object hybrid with a vibrant open source and data science community, and Microsoft’s Visual Basic, a .NET dialect of an old enterprise favourite. Traditionally, the .NET runtime has been a native executable. But recently we’ve seen .NET starting to arrive on WebAssembly. And with it comes C# - and every other .NET language.

In this post, we’ll look at how to write and build a server-side WebAssembly app in C#.

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Wasm, WASI, Wagi: What are they?

Any new technology comes with a litany of new terminology. WebAssembly is no different. In this post, we take a look at how Wasm (short for WebAssembly), WASI (the WebAssembly System Interface) and Wagi (WebAssembly Gateway Interface) work together. The Fermyon Spin framework makes use of all three of these.

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WebAssembly Languages

WebAssembly has been steadily gaining momentum over the last few years. It should come as no surprise that a batch of new programming languages are specifically targeting WebAssembly. In this article, we consider a few of those, including Grain and AssemblyScript.

AssemblyScript and Grain are both supported on the Fermyon Platform using Spin’s Wagi executor.

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Writing a WebAssembly Service in TinyGo for Wagi and Spin

Small is beautiful. In this post we create a tiny Spin service using the TinyGo compiler for the Go programming language.

On could fill a library with the “Hello World” examples in circulation today. When I set out to write this post, I decided to base it on a production service instead of a contrived example. In this blog post, we’ll look at a server for favicon.ico files. As simple as this little bit of code is, we actually run it at Fermyon.com, and have since the day we launched our website.

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What is Bindle

Bindle is a package repository system designed with WebAssembly in mind. Unlike “monolithic” package managers that focus on distributing large individual binaries, Bindle provides an intelligent system for distributing groups of related objects. As WebAssembly moves toward a component-based model, Bindle makes it possible for clients to pull only the pieces they need.

Or, to think of it in a completely different way, Bindle is the silverware drawer for WebAssembly.

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5 Fun Wasm Projects (that you might not have known about)


The WebAssembly ecosystem is growing at a remarkable pace and even beginning to break free of its origins in the browser. Today, there are quite a few exciting Wasm projects making waves in the community with a varied range of use cases. From CMSs to low-resource runtimes for the edge, we’re going to explore a few of these tools in this post.

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Come join the Fermyon Discord community!

In an effort to better connect with the Fermyon community, we have created a Discord server where you can hang out with friends and talk about the next wave in cloud computing. If you’re unfamiliar with Discord, it is a real-time chat application that allows users to communicate via channel-based communities. Here’s a really good intro video:

As for our specific server, we offer a variety of different activities outside the general chat channel. At the moment, we have four channels related to Fermyon specific projects where you can ask questions and get support. In the future, we hope to add more channels and activities such as live streams, virtual meet and greets, and Q & A sessions with WebAssembly experts. Come join the fun today!

Join here!

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The Scale to Zero Problem

Cloud is expensive. One reason for this is that a typical application instance sits idly waiting for inbound requests. Yet even though it is idle, it is incurring cloud charges. What if there was a way to scale down your application when it was not being used? What if it could be scaled to the point where no instance were even running? This is the idea behind “scale-to-zero” designs. In the Kubernetes ecosystem, a number of projects attempted to implement scale-to-zero. When we built our WebAssembly project, we built it to scale to zero by default.

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Why the Bytecode Alliance is important to the Wasm ecosystem

In the early stages of any technical innovation, projects are often heavily fragmented and lack a clearly defined body of standards that organizes proposals and navigates the larger discussion. In the growing WebAssembly world, a non-profit organization called the Bytecode Alliance is attempting to address this concern by providing a cross-industry standardization body for the Wasm ecosystem.

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Introducing Spin

We are pleased to announce our new WebAssembly framework, Spin. Spin is a foundational piece of the Fermyon Platform. It is also a great way to get started writing WebAssembly for the cloud.

What is a WebAssembly Framework?

We think of WebAssembly primarily as a compile target. Pick a language, write your code, and compile it to Wasm. But what kinds of code does one write in WebAssembly?

The original way to run a WebAssembly module was in the browser. For that reason, early WebAssembly effort was focused on optimizing performance-intensive code to be executed on a web page or client-side web app.

WebAssembly has now moved beyond the browser. Some platforms, like the Envoy proxy, allow you to write plugins in Wasm. Command line runtimes like Wasmtime and WAMR run Wasm binaries on the command line, allowing developers to write a single CLI application that can run on Windows, macOS, and Linux (regardless of the underlying architecture).

Here at Fermyon, we are most excited about the prospect of writing microservices and server-side web applications in WebAssembly. We gave a preview of this when we built Wagi. But with Spin, we’re taking things to a new level. Most specifically, Spin offers a framework for building apps.

What do we mean when we talk about a “framework”? A framework provides a set of features and conventions that assist a developer in reaching their desired goal faster and with less work. Ruby on Rails and Python Django are two good examples.

Spin is a framework for web apps, microservices, and other server-like applications. It provides the interfaces for writing WebAssembly modules that can do things like answer HTTP requests. One unique thing about Spin is that it is a multi-language framework. Rust and Go both have robust support in Spin, but you can also write Python, Ruby, AssemblyScript, Grain, C/C++, and other languages.

We are excited to already be using Spin in production. The Spin docs are (appropriately enough) running on Spin. That website is powered by the Bartholomew CMS system and is running on an HA Nomad cluster.

Spin is a foundational new technology that sets the pace for what we at Fermyon are building.

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A Reckoning for Serverless

Serverless is long overdue for a reckoning. For a few years, companies have waved the “serverless” banner. Serverless was supposed to be the next big thing. It promised freedom from one of the core concepts of computing: The server. But in big ways, the solution never fully materialized. Serverless held a great deal of promise. Only a small part of that promise was realized, though.

There are two reasons serverless did not seem to deliver.

  • The concept of “serverless” was never clearly articulated
  • The core technologies simply were not there

What serverless needed wasn’t bigger signs and more laptop stickers. It needed conceptual clarity. It needed grounding in a more adaptable compute layer. VMs and containers were not enough of a basis to build serverless. It needed a third wave of cloud compute. And this is why WebAssembly revives the ideas behind serverless and makes the vision not only compelling, but achievable.

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Introduction to WebAssembly on the Cloud

The first question everyone asks us when we start talking about WebAssembly is “So, does this run in the browser?”

This is a logical question. After all, the name WebAssembly (abbreviated as Wasm) implies that it is a web technology, and the original purpose of WebAssembly was to serve as a runtime inside of web browsers. In fact, all major browsers already support executing WebAssembly inside.

But that’s not really how we at Fermyon are using WebAssembly. Our interest is in running cloud services that can accomplish a few special goals:

  1. Speed. We want very fast startup time. VMs take minutes. Containers take seconds. We want to start up our cloud-side apps in milliseconds… or even microseconds.
  2. Security. We want security by default. More specifically, we want to be able to run code in a cloud service without running a risk that the code can breakout of its sandbox and cause problems for other applications in that cloud service. This is a core feature of both VMs and containers. And we think any compute service needs it.
  3. Cross-platform. One of the things that has frustrated us about containers is that you need to build a version of your container for each operating system and architecture that you want to support. But we’d like a way to compile once, and have it run on Windows, Linux, Mac, or even other OS. And we also want it to run on Intel, ARM, or whatever other architecture.
  4. Language agnostic. We want all of this PLUS we want to allow developers to write their applications in whatever language they prefer.

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Wasm.Builders: The Site for Learning WebAssembly

WebAssembly is on the rise. The 2021 State of JavaScript shows WebAssembly usage has doubled in only two years. At the end of last year, The New Stack said:

Expect to see the rise of cloud native WASM in 2022

An invaluable part of any ecosystem is a community hub where newcomers can learn and regulars can stay up to date on the latest developments. That is why Fermyon joined forces with (in alphabetical order) Forem, Microsoft, Profian, Suborbital, and WasmCloud to create the Wasm.Builders WebAssembly community.

Wasm.Builders is a great source of tutorials, how-tos, developer news, and training. You’ll find guides on using different languages (C, Go, Rust, AssemblyScript) on topics ranging from browser-based WebAssembly to serverless, trusted computing, cloud, and security.

Stay up-to-date with the latest Wasm.Builders news by following @WasmBuilders on Twitter.

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Is WebAssembly Susceptible to Log4Shell-style Attacks?

WebAssembly runs in a language virtual machine that is similar in many respects to the JVM (Java’s runtime) or the CLR (.NET’s runtime). But a key difference in WebAssembly’s architecture (built, as it was, for the browser) is that by default the runtime does not trust the code that it executes.

Late last year, a hack against a prominent open source Java library rocked the software world. A vulnerability in a logging system allowed attackers to execute arbitrary commands on the host. The recent Log4j attack provides an opportunity to talk about that characteristic and see why WebAssembly is resistant to this kind of attack. But I end with a warning that WebAssembly’s security model is only as good as its runtime security, and a troubling tendency to insecurely expose underlying host facilities to WebAssembly modules could undermine WebAssembly’s security model.

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Scripting Languages and Compiled Languages in WebAssembly

The promise of WebAssembly is that it can be a common runtime for all sorts of languages. But there are differences between how we traditionally write in scripting languages (JavaScript, Python, Ruby) versus compiled languages (C/C++, Go, Rust). There are also compiled languages that run in an interpreter, like Java running in a JVM. In this post, we survey the WebAssembly landscape to see what is happening along these fronts.

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Containers vs. WebAssembly: What's the Difference?

In the last few years, Docker Containers have been the most popular technology on the cloud side. Now, WebAssembly is arising as a new cloud technology. How does it compare to Docker Containers? Previously, we covered what WebAssembly is, and briefly touched on Docker. In this article, we explore the similarities and differences in more detail. We conclude that each has its place, but that WebAssembly opens some enticing possibilities.

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Rethinking Microservices

Microservices are serving us well in many ways. But in some ways, we can do better. Having learned a bit from Functions as a Service, containers, and now WebAssembly, we can rethink some of our assumptions and perhaps devise a better way for creating microservices.

Rethinking Microservices

In our first blog post, we talked about how we envision a new iteration of microservices. Then we introduced our CMS system, which in many ways exemplifies our approach to microservices. Last week we answered the question, How should we think about WebAssembly?, discussing why WebAssembly is a promising cloud technology. Here, we spell out the problems with microservices v1, and pave the way for a microsevices v2.

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How to Think About WebAssembly (Amid the Hype)

WebAssembly (also called Wasm) is certainly the subject of much hype right now. But what is it? Is it the JavaScript Killer? Is it a new programming language for the web? Is it (as we like to say) the next wave of cloud compute? We’ve heard it called many things: a better eBPF, the alternative to RISC V, a competitor to Java (or Flash), a performance booster for browsers, a replacement for Docker.

Thinking About WebAssembly

All those things are, to some degree, sensible ways of looking at WebAssembly. However, it might help to take a bird’s eye view of the technology and understand its essential properties. And from there, these other assessments will begin to make sense. Once we’ve covered the essential characteristics of WebAssembly, we’ll circle back to Fermyon’s stance that WebAssembly is the enabling technology behind the next wave of cloud compute.

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Why LibreOffice in WebAssembly is a Big Deal

Earlier this week, demos began to circulate of LibreOffice (using the QT graphical toolkit) compiled to WebAssembly and running in the browser. This comes after Thorsten Behrens of Allotropia gave an interview announcing WebAssembly support in LibreOffice . The stories trended to the top of Hacker News. And this came hot on the heels of the Fosdem session explaining WebAssembly for LibreOffice. Why all the fuss?

For us at Fermyon, we see LibreOffice’s move as a strong indicator that WebAssembly is now poised to enter the practices of mainstream developers. And while Fermyon is focused primarily on the cloud side of things, we do think that (just as with JavaScript and Node.js) both sides of the network connection will benefit from pervasive use of WebAssembly.

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Introducing Bartholomew

Fermyon is proud to introduce our new lightweight WebAssembly (Wasm) content management system (CMS): Bartholomew. As we mentioned in our first blog post, the entire Fermyon.com website is served from WebAssembly modules. In this post, we talk about Bartholomew, our CMS system.

Bartholomew is built as a Wagi application, and will run inside of Hippo or inside of Krustlet if you have the Wagi extension. At Fermyon, we run ours using Hippo deploying to a Nomad cluster.

Bartholomew offers a feature set that should be familiar to users of popular static site generators like Hugo. However, Bartholomew is not a static site generator. Built into a lightweight WebAssembly module, it processes page requests individually on demand.

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Hello World

Hello World! We’re Fermyon Technologies, and we are building the third wave of cloud compute with WebAssembly.

Three Waves

Take a look at the cloud compute landscape. Virtual Machines (VMs) are the heavyweight contender, the first big entrants into the field. But cloud compute did not stop there. Along came containers. Those of us on board in the early days believed that containers would unseat VMs and become the way compute was done in the cloud. Happily, we were wrong and not wrong. Containers were wildly successful, but they did not replace VMs. In fact, VM consumption has gone up alongside container usage.

For several years, we worked on container technologies. As part of Deis, and then DeisLabs at Microsoft, we explored the container landscape. And we are proud of the things we built and the community with whom we built them: Helm, Brigade, the Kubernetes VS Code extension, Open Service Mesh, CNAB, and others. But along the journey we discovered some of the limitations of containers. And that got us asking a new question.

Along with VMs and containers, is there a third wave of cloud compute?

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